Instruments

  • AFM

  • ION CHROMATOGRAPHIC

  • XRD

  • NMR

  • SEM

  • UV-NIR-VIS

ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY (AFM)

Description

Instrument : Atomic Force Microscope
Both contact and tapping modes are available.
Scanner —100 μm


Applications

Testing capabilities:
  • surface morphology

  • particle size

  • roughness of the samples and 3D and 2D images


Sample Specification

  • Thin Films : Thickness up to 3 mm, Diameter 1 cm

  • Metals : Thickness up to 3 mm, Diameter 1 cm

  • If the sample in powder form spread it thinly on a microscope slide using a drop of acetone (to be done by the user).

  • Tooth : Thickness and diameter below 1 cm

Limitations

Direct liquid samples and powder samples cannot be tested

ION CHROMATOGRAPHIC SYSTEM (IC)

Description

Instrument : Dionex ICS-1100 Ion Chromatographic System with degas (Isocratic)
Maximum Operating Pressure: 35MPa (5000psi)
Flow Rate Range: 0.05-5.0 mL/min in 0.01 increments
Flow Precision: <0.2%
Flow Accuracy: <1.0% from 0.4 to 2.0mL/min at 1000-3000psi
Resolution of conductivity detector: 0.1 nS
Sample holders : 50 polyvials of 5mL size

Air conditioned (21 to 24 degree C) ; Relative humidity is less than 60 % ; Nitrogen with 99.99% purity, regulator (0-1 bar control)


Applications

Testing capabilities:
  • Major cations like Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium and Ammonium can be identified and quantified.

  • Major anions like Fluoride, Chloride, Nitrate, Phosphate and Sulphate can be identified and quantified.


Types of samples for analysis:
  • Water Sample – Groundwater, Surface water, Rainwater, Packaged drinking water.


Sample Specification

  • Water samples need to be filtered through a filter of pore size 0.20µm

  • Conductivity of the water sample should be within 120µS.

  • Conductivity should be lowered by dilution if the sample conductivity exceeds 120µS.


Limitations

Waste water and chemically treated water/solution cannot be tested

X-RAY DIFFRACTROMETER (XRD)

Description

Instrument : Rigaku Miniflex 600 (5th gen )
> X-ray generation – up to 40 kV & current(15 mA)
> Temperature range - near room temperature measurement with an up gradation of high temperature measurement
> Samples – Both bulk and thin films sample measurement.
> Filters – Nickel filter.
> Wide angle measurement (50-130 ) 2 theta value.


Applications

Testing capabilities:
qualitative and quantitative analysis of polycrystalline materials

Phase identification and quantification
  • Percent (%) crystallinity

  • Crystallite size and strain

  • Lattice parameter calculation




Sample Specification

Types of samples for analysis:
  • Powder: 15 - 20 mg

  • Thin Films: Thickness 2mm, diameter 2 cm.

  • Metals: Thickness 2mm, diameter 2 cm.


Limitations

Samples such as Liquid samples cannot be tested

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (NMR)

Description

Make: Bruker Ascend 400 MHz
Testing capabilities: 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 31P NMR, DEPT & HSQC-GP.

Applications

Organic samples

Sample Specification

Solid / liquid samples should be soluble in DMSO/CDCl3/D2O (mainly organic compounds):
Quantity of Sample required
  • Carbon NMR – 10 - 15mg

  • Proton NMR - 5mg



Limitations

Solid samples such as Metals cannot be tested

SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM)

Description

Instrument : EVO MA18 with Oxford EDS(X-act)

Magnification: Minimum 1x and maximum 1,00,000x

EDS : Liquid nitrogen free

Sample holders : 9 sample holders

Depth of focus: At a magnification of 1000x, aperture size of 100 microns and working distance of 10 mm should be 40 microns

Air conditioned (21 to 24 degree C) ; Relative humidity is less than 60 % ; Nitrogen with 99.99% purity, regulator (0-3 bar control)  


Air conditioned (21 to 24 degree C) ; Relative humidity is less than 60 % ; Nitrogen with 99.99% purity, regulator (0-3 bar control)


Applications

Testing capabilities:

  • Topographic imaging of materials .

  • Measurement of thickness of the samples

  • Identification of elements from carbon upwards using energy dispersive X-ray analysis

  • Grain size measurement 


Types of samples for analysis:


  • Non-Conductive samples

    • Biological Samples (like plant material, Bacteria, Tooth, wood etc.,)

    • Insulating Samples (like Glass, Ceramic, Plastic etc.)

    • Polymer/Membranes

    • Thin Film Samples

  • Semi-Conductive samples
    • Silicone

  • Conductive samples

    • Metals, alloys

Powder sample in pellet form



Sample Specification


  • Size : Diameter /height /thickness : 5- 6 mm

  • Dry samples

UV-VIS-NIR-SPECTROPHOTOMETER

Description

Wavelength range: 200 nm-3600nm.
Temperature range: near room temperature.
Desired resolution: less than 0.2nm.
Mode of operation: Reflection, transmission, absorption


User information

Materials: liquid samples [transmission, absorption]
solid samples [reflection, transmission and absorption]

Applications

Testing capabilities:

Optical reflectance, transmittance, absorption of solution, thin films and thick films.

Sample Specification

  • FOR TRANSMISSION AND ABSORPTION:
    SUBSTRATE Min HEIGHT 2.5cm,Min BREADTH 1cm

  • FOR REFLECTANCE : SUBSTRATE Min HEIGHT 2.5cm,Min BREADTH 2.5cm

  • Liquid Samples: 10ml - 15ml.


NOTE: NO REFLECTION MEASURNMENT FOR LIQUID SAMPLES.
USER SHOULD BRING THEIR REFERENCE METERIALS.

Limitations

Direct powder samples cannot be measured.
Metal substrates can be used only for reflectance measurnment.

NIKON OPTICAL MICROSCOPE LV 100

Description

Resolution: Up to 500nm

Modes of operation:
o Transmission mode
o Reflection mode (for opaque samples)


Applications

All material which are in the thin film form on planar substrate.

o Micron size pore can be analysed.
o Biological samples like proteins, bacteria can be clearly seen


Sample Specification

  • Sample should be on planar solid surface (Glass).

  • Sample should be ‘dry’


Limitations

Flexible, liquid and power samples less than 500nm cannot be examined.